Hajj is one of the five tenets of Islam; it is a visit to the House of Allah. Hajj is incumbent upon all adult Muslims in full possession of his/her faculties if he/she has the physical strength to undertake the journey and the financial capacity to meet the expenses of the travel and make provision for his family until his return. But, only one Hajj is Farz (compulsory) in one’s life. Hajj is performed from the 8th to 12th (or 13th) of the month of Zil Hajj, the 12th Month in the Islamic calendar. It includes stay in Mina, Arafat and Muzdalifah in Saudi Arabia in a sacred garb of Ihram, and involves circumambulation of the Holy Ka’aba in Makkah and other rites. All sins are forgiven when Hajj is performed properly with sincerity and a Hajis is presumed to return home as innocent as a new born and Allah rewards such Hajis with Jannat. The first Islamic Hajj was performed in the 9th Hijri.


Umrah, which also involves visit to the House of Allah, can be performed at any time of the year except on the days of Hajj. It involves visit to Makkah in the sacred garb of Ihram, circumambulation of the Holy Ka’aba in Makkah, saee and tonsure or trimming of one’s hair. Performance of Umrah is not a fundamental duty in Islam; but according to the Hanafi School, performance of one Umrah in one’s life is a strong sunnah and according to the Shafi School, it is obligatory. The conditions for performance of Umrah are the same as those of Hajj. Generally, people from India do not undertake a journey only for Umrah, though of late several Muslims have started performing Umrah during the month of Ramzan. They also perform Umrah when they happen to visit Saudi Arabia or when they go for Hajj. Umrah does not fulfill the requirements of Hajj such as stay at Mina, Arafat and Muzdalifa, pelting of stones at jamarath (shaitan) and sacrifice of an animal, etc.


While performing Hajj, in case of woman, there is an additional condition that she should be accompanied by her husband, if married or father/brother, maternal or paternal uncles or grand fathers and such an escort is called Mehram. A woman can not perform Hajj or Umrah without a male escort who should be a person whom she is prohibited from marrying.

Right of admission to Makkah and Madinah:

Non-Muslims are not permitted to enter the Holy cities of Makkah and Madinah and their sacred precincts. The prohibited area is called ‘Al-Haram’ and it extends to a few kilometres outside the city limits, which ranges from 5 – 20 Kms.


There are three types of Hajj, namely (i) Tamattu, (ii) Ifrad and (iii) Qiran

The method of wearing Ihram differs based on the type of Hajj performed. The details of Ihram are as follows:-

Tamatt’u (interrupted):

Persons who put on Ihram this way are called ‘mutamatti’. They assume Ihram at the Meeqaat for Umarh only. On reaching Makkah, they complete Umrah and relinquish Ihram. Later, on the 8th day of Zil Hajj, they assume Ihram again for Hajj and complete Hajj. They may perform optional Umrahs after completion of Hajj.

Note: Pilgrims from India generally follow this method.


Those who put on Ihram this way are called mufrid. They assume Ihram at Meeqaat for Hajj only, and they perform Hajj during Hajj days. Persons of this category may perform Umrah only after completing Hajj.

Note: It is not obligatory for them to offer the sacrifice (qurbani); it is optional.

Qiran (combined):

The qarin, who performs Hajj by this method, assumes Ihram at the Meeqaat for Umrah and Hajj together. On reaching Makkah, he/she performs the tawaf and the saee of Umrah but does not perform tonsure or trimming of the hair. The qarin continues to remain in Ihram until the Hajj days and performs Hajj and fulfils the intention.


Hajj has basic essential conditions called sharat, unavoidable components called rukn, duties which are wajib and recommended sunnahs. The following table will illustrate, the rukns and wajibs based on a study of many authors; though there may some difference in opinion.


Rite Interpretation

1. Wearing Ihram. Shart

2. Wearing Ihram before crossing miqat —

3. Remaining in Arafat rukn

4. Night halt at Muzdalifah wajib

5. Rami of Shayateen (throwing pebbles) wajib

6.Offering sacrifice (qurbani) (except for mufrid) wajib

7. Head shave/tonsure wajib

8. Staying at Mina during the nights (except 9th) —

9. Tawaf-al-ifadah (main tawaf of Hajj; also called

tawaf-al-ziyarah) rukn

10. Saee wajib

11. Tawaf-al-wida (for foreigners) wajib

12. Performing the rukns in the listed order. —


Rite Interpretation

1. Wearing Ihram. rukn

2. Wearing Ihram before crossing miqat wajib

3. Remaining in Arafat rukn

4. Night halt at Muzdalifah wajib

5. Rami of Shayateen (throwing pebbles) wajib

6.Offering sacrifice (qurbani) (except for mufrid) wajib

7. Head shave/tonsure rukn

8. Staying at Mina during the nights (except 9th) wajib

9. Tawaf-al-ifadah (main tawaf of Hajj; also called

tawaf-al-ziyarah) rukn

10. Saee rukn

11. Tawaf-al-wida (for foreigners) —

12. Performing the rukns in the listed order. rukn

As a general rule, omission of sharat and rukn have no remedy and hence they cannot be rectified; Hajj has to be repeated. But, omission of any wajib is deemed to nullify the Hajj; but can be rectified by undertaking/performing remedy as prescribed. But, if one omits to perform a wajib, it is incumbent on one to offer remedy or dum (which also becomes wajib then). Dum involves sacrifice of a goat for each omission or irregularity. Dum is not needed, if any, sunnah is omitted. It is suggested that if any situation of this type arises, the pilgrim may consult the ulema available at the time.


The following are certain rules and guidelines for the performance of Hajj:-

Hajj has to be performed atleast once in one’s lifetime and it is obligatory for those who possess sufficient means. If a person performs Hajj many times, only one is treated as obligatory and the rest as Nafl, which also carries great reward from Allah.

If any one performs Hajj in his childhood, his Hajj is not counted. After maturity, he has to perform Hajj again; but Hajj is not compulsory for the blind. If Hajj becomes obligatory on anyone, it should be performed as the same year. Hajj is also obligatory for women, but they should go along with their Mehram or a permissible male relative.

There are four obligatory things to be observed while performing Hajj.

To put on Ihram (special garb unsewn for males).

Make a resolution or niyyath (intention) for Hajj.

To stay at Arafath on 9th Zil Hajj.

Tawaf-e-Kabah. Saee – to walk and tun between Safa and Marva seven times including Sayee.

Note: If any of the above are incomplete, the entire Hajj has to be repeated and there is no other remedy.

Other essentials of Hajj

Halaq – to shave the head or cut the hair.

Ramee – to pelt stones at Jamarath.

Tawaf – to go round Kabah.

Sacrifice an animal during the specific days.

Note: If any of the above are omitted or incomplete, there is a remedy in the form of Dum, which means sacrificing an animal (goat, etc.) and distributing the meat to the poor. This is in addition to the mandatory sacrifice of a permitted animal as part of Hajj.

Sunnah of Hajj

To do Tawaf on foot

To listen to the sermons by Imam in three places, at Makkah, at Arafath and at Mina.

To stay at Mina on 8th Zil Hajj.

To perform at least five obligatory prayers in Mina during the stay.

To collect peables at Muzdalifa.

To start from Mina on 9th morning after sun rise and proceed to Arafat.

To leave Arafath for Muzdalifa after the sunset but without offering Maghrib prayer.

After returning from Arafath, one should stay at Muzdalifa for that night, where Maghrib and Isha prayers are offered together.

To stay in Mina during the days of Tashreeq.

To take bath at Arafath.




It is called Yaum-e-Tarwiyya. If you are performing Tamattu Hajj and you have put off your Ihram after performing Umrah during Hajj season, then you should again put on Ihram on 7th or 8th Zil Hajj for Hajj. For this purpose take a bath, put on two white unsewn sheets, go to Haram Sharif and after offering two raka’at Nafil of Ihram, make the intention for Ihram of Hajj. If the time of Namaaz is makrooh, then the intention may be made after Farz Namaaz, without the Nafil of Ihram.

Qiran and Ifrad:

If you are performing Qiran or Ifrad Hajj, then you are already in Ihram, which you wore at Meeqaat. In such a case, you may directly proceed to Mina on 7th or 8th of Zil Hajj.

If you want to perform the Saee of Hajj before Vaqoof of Arafa then perform a Nafil Tawaaf with Ramal and Ishtibah and then perform Saee with the particular intention of Saee of Hajj. But to perform the Saee of Hajj after the Tawaaf of Ziyarat is better.On this day, you leave Makkah for Mina after sunrise in the echoing atmosphere of





“I am present, Oh Allah! I am present. I am present. No one is a partner to thee. I am present. Surely all the praises and Blessings are Thine and the Kingdom as well. There is no partner to Thee.”

You feel yourself in an angelic world, wave after wave of human races from all over the world flow and flood towards the barren plain of Mina. Speaking various dialects, they are all folded in the sacred dress Ihram and utter the Heavenly call of Lab-baik.

This is the living miracle of the unity of Islam. Reach Mina preferably in the forenoon and offer five Namaaz, from Zuhar of the 8th to Fajr of 9th Zil Hajj. The Namaaz should preferably be attended in Masjid-e-Khaif, in Mina, where Allah’s Messenger (Blessings of Allah and Peace be on him) stayed and offered Namaaz. But if you are afraid of losing your camp, then offer the Namaaz with Jamaat in your camp.

The old and weak and women should not go out of the camp unnecessarily because there are hundreds of lost cases every year. When you go out of the camp, make sure that you have the card of your Moallim. Devote your stay in Mina to prayers, Darood Sharif and Istighfaar. Repent from past sins and resolve firmly to lead a pious life according to the commands of the Almighty Allah and the Traditions of Allah’s Messenger (Blessings of Allah and Peace be on him).


It is called Yaum-e-Vagoof or Yaum-e-Arafa. This is the main day of Hajj. You pack up your luggage for passing an afternoon in Arafat and night in the open plain of Muzdalifa.

One blanket, dry food, water-can and prayer booklets are the essentials of this journey. Start from Mina after sunrise, preferably after offering Ishraq Namaaz in Masjid-e-Khaif.

The distance from Mina to Arafat via Muzdalifa is about five miles which may be covered on foot, and that is better. You can use a vehicle also. Reach Arafat before mid-day for Vaqoof, which is Sunnat. Take rest before noon in your camp. When Zawaal sets in, you may go to Masjid-e-Namrah, attend the Khutba, which is recited before the combined Namaaz of Zuhar and Asr. After the Khutba, two raka’at Zuhar Farz are offered with Jamaat and then the Imam leads the prayer for two raka’at Farz of Asr with another Takbeer.

If you are not going to Masjid-e-Namrah, then offer the Zuhar and Asr Namaaz separately in your tent at their respective times. As there are many chances of getting lost in Arafat, it is better to offer your prayers in your tent.

From the Fajr Namaaz of 9th Zil Hajj till the Asr Namaaz of 13th Zil Hajj, say takbeer after every Namaaz:


This is a very important day. Do not talk unnecessarily. Do lots of du’a. Do Zikr. Recite the first, third and fourth Kalima. Recite 100 times Darood-e-Ibrahim, 100 times Surah Ikhlas with Bis-mil-lah.

Do lot of du’a. In between du’a recite lab-baik.

Halting and standing in Arafat is the foremost Hajj rite, so much so that Allah’s Messenger (Blessings of Allah and Peace be on him) is reported to have said “Hajj is halting in Arafat”. (Tirmizi Sharif).

On this day when hundreds of thousands of people, clad in similar humble robes, stand in the plain of Arafat as pictures of humility and devotion, in the presence of the Almighty Allah, they indeed, for a short while, represent the scene of the Day of Rising, when all worldly distinctions will be levelled down and everyone will be awaiting and standing in awe of the Divine Verdict.

If a person is not able to reach Arafat on the 9th of Zil Hajj or any time during the day or night, and stand there even for a little while, he will not be considered to have performed Hajj at all. If any of the other devotional acts like Tawaaf, Saee, Rami, etc., are missed, they can be recompensed, but there is no recompense for one’s absence from Arafat.

0The longer the halt in Arafat, the better it is. The pilgrim should stand there with the presence and remember that he is totally dependent on the Mercy of Allah for deliverance, and that this is the only and perhaps the last opportunity for him to beg and implore Him for forgiveness. The pilgrim should, therefore, realise the importance of each moment of him stay in Arafat. Stressing the importance of excellence of halting in Arafat, Allah’s Messenger (Blessings of Allah and Peace be on him) has said, “There is no other day on which Allah relieves more people from Hell-fire than He does on the Day of Arafat. On this day Allah draws nearest to the people and taking pride in His Righteous servants, asks the angels, “Do you see what they desire?” (Muslim Sharif).

During the halt in the plain of Arafat, one should constantly keep one’s whole attention turned towards Allah and make supplications to Him as often as one can. Allah’s Messenger (Blessings of Allah and Peace be on him) has said that “The best of supplications is the one made in Arafat”.

Start for Muzdalifa after sunset in Arafat without offering the Magrib Namaaz. This will be offered with Isha Namaaz in Muzdalifa. If a person leaves Arafat territory before sunset, then a Dum is wajib or him and he should sacrifice one sheep or goat as a penalty. But if he returns before sunset, nothing is wajib.

After keeping your baggage safely in Muzdalifa, offer the combined Magrib and Isha Namaaz with Jamaat, preferably in Masjid Masharil Haram. The blanket, dry food and water brought from Arafat is required in Muzdalifa as about a million people pass this night in the open and barren plain of Muzdalifa.

The Night of Masharil Harem is a very virtuous night. Therefore pass this Night with full prayers and devotion. Practically, the people reach Muzdalifa two or three hours after sunset. You may take rest for 2-3 hours after Isha Namaaz and then get up for Tahajjud and other prayers till the time of Fajr. When the Time of Fajr starts, offer the Fajr with Jamaat and observe Vaqoof of Muzdalifa reciting Darood, Istighfaar and other prayers, preferably near Jabal Qazah. The time limit of Vaqoof of Muzdalifa is from dawn to sunrise on tenth of Zil Hajj. Do lots of du’a. In between du’a recite Lab-baik.

You should start from Muzdalifa to Mina only when few minutes remain for sunrise. To start before dawn from Muzdalifa is not allowed except for old, weak persons and women, for fear of rush. Also collect from Muzdalifa approximately 70 pebbles so as to pelt (7+21+21) 49 pea-sized pebbles for Rami Jamarath.


Start from Muzdalifa before sunrise and reach Mina in forenoon to perform the rites.

After reaching Mina keep your baggage, etc., safely in your camp and start to perform the rites, strictly in the following order.

Without long rest in the camp, rush to strike seven pebbles on the third Jamrah known as Jamrat Al-Uqba (Big shaitaan) before Zawaal. For ladies and weak persons, it is allowed to perform Rami up to sunset, otherwise Makrooh. Throw the pebbles one by one, and raising the right hand. Discontinue the Talbiyah with the first pebble on Jamrah. Recite the following prayer when throwing the pebbles on the Jamrah:


In the name of Allah. Allah the Most Great, I strike the pebbles to Satan to secure the pleasure of Beneficent O! my Lord Allah make my Hajj accepted and my sins forgiven and my endeavour honoured.

Zabah or animal sacrifice:

After returning from Jamrah, go to Mazbah for sacrificing an animal. For a person (men or women) performing Tamattu or Qiran Hajj, it is obligatory to sacrifice a sheep or goat or one-seventh share in a camel or cow. It is not required from persons performing Ifrad Hajj. You can take the meat from your sacrifice for your use, this is Sunnat. The capable persons should sacrifice separately for Idul-Ad-haa as they do in their country but it is not applicable to the persons offering Qasr Namaaz in Makkah Mukarrama.


After sacrifice you can put off the Ihram of Hajj by Halq, i.e. by shaving the head or shortening the hair as already described under Umrah. Women should cut their lock about an inch to put off the Ihram. Now you are free of Ihram restrictions and can use your normal dress and perfumes, etc. However, the husband-wife relationship is still not allowed, unless you perform Tawaaf-e-Ziyarat.


It is better to perform this Tawaaf on 10th Zil Hajj but it can be performed up to Magrib on 12th Zil Hajj. Go to Makkah Mukarrama on the 10th afternoon and perform a usual Tawaaf-e-Sadr. The husband-wife relationship is still not allowed until both of them have performed Tawaaf-e-Ziyarat. After Tawaaf-e-Sadr, return from Makkah Mukarrama to pass at least two nights in Mina. This is a Sunnat. If you are still in Ihram, you should observe Iztibah and Ramal in Tawaaf of Ziyarat. If you have put off Ihram before coming to Makkah Mukarrama then Iztibah and Ramal are not required.

Saee of Hajj.

After Tawaaf of Ziyarat, perform a usual Saee with particular intention of Saee of Hajj. Saee may be performed without Ihram. In case you have completed Saee of Hajj before Vaqoof of Arafat then no Saee is required now.


Devote the stay of Mina to praying and praising Allah. It is obligatory to pass the night of 10th and 11th Zil Hajj in Mina and to perform Rami of the three jamrat on 11th and 12th Zil Hajj after Zawaal. For Rami, go to Jamrat with more than twenty-one pebbles. Strike seven pebbles on 1st Jamrah reciting the prayer mentioned before and then stay facing Ka’aba near it for five minutes praying for your welfare, then proceed to second Jamrah, strike seven pebbles and stay a few meter ahead from Jamrah for five minutes prayer and then proceed to the third and the last Jamrah i.e. Jamrat al Uqbah, strike the last seven pebbles and return to your camp without staying or praying after it. For ladies and old person it is allowed to perform the Rami even after sunset on 11th and 12th Zil Hajj otherwise it is makrooh.


Perform the Rami of the three jamrat after Zawaal as performed on 11th Zil Hajj.


To return to Makkah Mukarrama from Mina after the Rami of 12th is allowed but it is better to return after performing the Rami of 13th Zil Hajj in similar way. If a person intends to leave Mina on 12th then he should leave it before sunset. Departure from Mina on 12th after sunset in makrooh. If a person stayed in Mina up to the dawn of 13th Zil Hajj, then it is obligatory to him to perform the Rami after Zawaal of 13th Zil Hajj.


The Rami on 10th should be performed before Zawaal. It is Sunnat. It is also allowed from Zawaal to sunset. But, it is makrooh after sunset and forbidden after the dawn of 11th. If a person could not perform the Rami of 10th up to the dawn of 11th then a blood sacrifice is due to him as a penalty which is knows as Dum.

The time of Rami on 11th, 12th and 13th starts from Zawaal to sunset, from sunset to next dawn, it is makrooh and forbidden after the dawn of next day. If a person could not perform it in the prescribed time, then a Dum is Wajib.


The sacrifice of animal for Tamattu and Qiran Hajj should be performed from the dawn of 10th to the sunset of 12th Zil Hajj, within the Haram territory preferably in Mina. If a person did it after this period or outside the Haram territory then a Dum will be Wajib.


The head shaving or hair shortening should be performed from dawn of the 10th to the sunset of 12th within the Haram territory. Performing it after the prescribed period or outside the Haram territory will be subjected to a Dum. To perform Rami, Nahar and Halaq in the same order is also wajib. If a person performed Halaq before Nahar of Rami after Halaq then a Dum will be wajib.


Return from Mina to Makkah Mukarrama on 12th or 13th afternoon. Now, your Hajj is complete. According to Hadith, whosoever performed Hajj solely for Allah and did not resort to any lewdness or abuse, he returns from Hajj as innocent and sinless as he was on the day he was born. All your past sins are forgiven and you are like a newly born baby. You are entering into a new phase of life. You should not forget the Benevolence of Allah, who selected you from among the millions of Muslims and honoured you with the visit of His Holy House, the abode of Prophets. You should not forget the promises made by you in Arafat to lead a pious life. Now you are well aware of your responsibilities. If you commit sins again, it will not only degrade you but also reflect on the whole society. After Hajj you should devote your maximum time to prayers in Makkah Mukarrama.

Nafil Umrah may be performed for your parents, relatives, teachers and off springs, dead or alive. Similarly, Nafil Tawaaf may be performed for them. At least one full recitation of Qur’aan may be completed during this period. Nafil Namaaz may also be offered for yourself. Be particular for five times Namaaz. Do not forget that one Namaaz offered with Jamaat in Haram is equal to one hundred thousand Namaaz offered elsewhere.


When you decide finally to depart from Makkah Mukarrama and Haram, perform a farewell Tawaaf with full devotion. Tears will well up in your eyes when you think that the Haram, the Ka’aba, Multazim, Maqaam-e-Ibrahim and zam zam will be lost to you for ever. Now, you will be deprived of all this benevolence. Call Allah with tears in your eyes and sobbing voice at Multazim and say:

O my Lord! I am Thy humble servant. It is Thy sheer benevolence that Thou called me here. O my Lord! Call me here again and again. And record my these words today, at this Sacred Place. That I proclaim with my full belief and conscience, and from the depth of my heart, my truth and the eternal truth, that there is no god except Allah and Prophet Muhammad (Blessings of Allah and peace be on him) is His Messenger o My Lord, record my, these words with the witness of entire universe. O my Lord, bring me back again to this Sacred Place. And if I could not come back again then preserve my covenant up to the Day of Resurrection. And make it a proof of my deliverance. O my Lord Allah, Bless me with thy pleasure. And guide me to lead to Thy Prophet, Peace be upon him, his off springs and Companions.

After completing Tawaaf-e-Vida and drinking zam zam finally return to Hajar-e-Aswad and kiss it thrice the last time with full reverence and love and return from it taking a last glance and reciting the following prayer:


(We are) among those who came, those who repented, prayed and Praised Allah, our Lord, who fulfilled His promise and gave victory to His servant. And defeated His foes along.


Hajj is performed on behalf of others also. This is called Haj-e-Badal. The person doing Haj-e-Badal should have performed Hajj earlier.


Those who go for Hajj, go to Makkah quite in advance. They go with the intention of performing Umrah, at first. Hence, they put on Ihram dress from their houses. People from Chennai put on Ihram from their houses and go to the airport. Likewise, the people of cities put on Ihram and reach Makkah. They perform Umrah first and remain in Makkah till the 8th Zil Hajj.

Before putting on Ihram, it is appreciable, to remove hair from below the naval and armpits and to chip nails of the fingers. Then one should take a bath. Then one has to put on the Ihram (Dress). Ihram dress consists of two pieces of cloth, one below and the other to be wrapped over the body. Ihram for woman is the usual dress. After putting on Ihram, two Rakath Nafl prayer should be offered. After concluding the prayer, bare headed, one should make niyyath (intention) for Umrah and then Talbiyah should be recited.





“I am present, Oh Allah! I am present. I am present. No one is a partner to thee. I am present. Surely all the praises and Blessings are Thine and the Kingdom as well. There is no partner to Thee.”

After putting on Ihram, one should avoid quarrelling and conflicts. One should not indulge in sexual intercourse; one should not kill animals even bugs, ants, etc.; one should not go for hunting; and one should not remove his own hairs and one should not use perfumes.

As soon as a person reaches, Makkah, he should go to Ka’aba and enter the House of Allah through Babus Salam. After seeing the Ka’aba, one should say

“Allahu Akbar! Allahu Akbar! Lailaha Illal la hu! Allahu Akbar!

Then one should start doing Tawaf of Ka’aba. Tawaf involves going round Ka’aba for seven times starting from the Black-stone. One should kiss the Black-stone or just raise both hands towards the Black-stone and say “Bismillah hi Allahu Akbar wa Lilla hil Hamd” and touch his hand to his lips. Then one should start moving in such a manner that Kabah should be towards the left side. One should go round Kabah for seven times. These seven rounds are considered to be one Tawaf. After Tawaf, one should go to Muqam Ibrahim and offer two Rakath Nafl prayer, drink Zam Zam water to his full and come back to Multhazim – a wall in between the Black Stone and the door of Ka’aba – and start supplicating before Allah.

SAEE (Moving between Safa and Marwa)

After completing Tawaf, one should go for Saee. Saee means to run seven time in between Safa and Marwa. Safa and Marwa are two small hills where Hazrath Hajra® had run in search of water for her young son Prophet Ismail.

One should go to Safa first and stand in such a manner that Ka’aba is seen from there. Then one should pray for his needs, pray for himself and for others. One should march towards Marwa while reciting various Dua and doing Zikr. In between Safa and Marwa one should run for some distance, which is indicated there. After reaching Marwa, one should stand towards Ka’aba and then pray for his needs. This is called one round. Like this one should complete seven rounds. Saee starts from Safa and ends by Marwa after seven rounds. After completing Saee, one should shave his head. Ladies must cut off a few hair from their head.


Ka’aba was constructed by the Prophets, Ibrahim and Ismail (peace be upon them) about five thousand years ago. Prophets Ibrahim and Ismail (peace be upon them) raised the foundations of the House of Allah, they prayed ‘O! Our Lord, accept this effort from us. You are All-listening and All-knowing. Our Lord! Make us Muslims who submit themselves before Your authority and make our progeny also Muslims. And show us our places of following the rites and forgive us because You are Forgiving and Most Merciful”.

When they constructed Ka’aba, they were asked to call the people for pilgrimage and call the people for Hajj. The sacred Ka’aba is an embodiment of goodness and blessing.


After performing Hajj or before Hajj, one should go to Madinah to visit the tomb of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the Masjid Nabavi. In this connection, the Prophet (Sallalahu alaihi wasallam) has said that one who visits his grave will gain the same credit and blessings as if he has seen him in his lifetime. Those who do not visit the grave of the Prophets are considered cruel and unkind. Those who pray in the Mosque of the Prophets (peace be upon him) at Madinah will get the reward equal to fifty thousand prayers and those who pray in Ka’aba will get the reward to one lakh prayers. The Prophet (Sallalahi alaihi wasallam) has said that there are three Mosques towards which one could undertake journey. The first is the Mosque of Ka’aba, the second Masjide Nabavi at Madinah and the third Masjid Aqsa at Jerusalem.

A brief account of Prophet Ibrahim and Prophet Ismail pertaining to Hajj.

The Prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him) left his wife and his infant son Ismail in the barren valley of Makkah at the Command of Allah. When he was returning, Hajira, his wife asked him why he was leaving them there in the desert. The Prophet replied that it was the Command of Allah, to leave her in that place. She gladly accepted because she had full faith that Allah would safeguard her. Prophet Ibrahim returned to Makkah after eight years. He found that Makkah was full of people and his wife and the child were safe. Again he returned to his place and came back to Makkah after another eight years. At that time, he saw in a dream that he was sacrificing his son Ismail. (peace be upon him) He took his son out of Makkah and laid his son down on the ground of Mina. When he was about to perform the sacrifice of his son, he heard a voice to hold his hand. A ram from paradise was placed in the place of Ismail (peace be upon him) and it was the ram that was sacrificed. Thus Ismail (peace be upon him) was saved.

The determination of Prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him) to sacrifice his son (peace be upon him) has been termed as “Islam” by Allah which means surrender or submission. When Prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him) and Prophet Ismail (peace be upon him) constructed Ka’aba, Prophet Ismail (peace be upon him) was 16 years old at that time. When he completed the construction, Prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him) prayed” our Lord! I have settled my posterity in the barran valley near the Holy House, our Lord! That they establish prayers. They Prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him) and Prophet Ismail (peace be upon him) prayed to Allah”. Our Lord! Raise up a messenger from among them who recite your verses and teach the Book and the wisdom and purify them”. Their prayers were accepted and the last Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) was born in their progreny.

Hajj was performed from the time of Prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him). Every year, people used to gather in Makkah and go to Mina and Arafath. They go round the House of Allah and move between Safa and Marva. The people of Quraish were the custodians of Ka’aba and they were treating the pilgrims with hospitality. When the Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) was born, Abdul Muttalib, his grand father, was the Chief of Makkah and the custodian of Ka’aba.

The Prophet Muhammad (Sallalahu alaihi wasallam) is the last prophet who called people towards Allah. One of the fundamental teachings of Islam is Hajj. (Pilgrimage).